PSE AND THE ENVIRONMENTPSE as a transmission system operator

As the only transmission system operator in Poland, we manage a territorially extensive power system. Since 2021, we have also acted as an energy market information operator.

PSE is the transmission system operator (TSO) in Poland. In the light of the Energy Law, one TSO is designated on the territory of the Republic of Poland. Our company has been appointed by the President of the Energy Regulatory Office (ERO) to perform this function until December 31, 2030.

We render services in the field of transmission of electricity and provision of the power system, while maintaining the required criteria for the safe operation of the National Power System (NPS). As the electric power transmission system operator (TSO), our company is expected to take effective actions to ensure the required quality and security of electricity supply and economic operation of the system. The operator's actions are directly dictated by the technical development of the electric power transmission systems and the legal regulations concerning the power sector. Consequently, we are an enterprise of considerable importance to the public order and safety, and of particular significance to the Polish economy. PSE is also a member of the European association of operators (ENTSO-E).

In 2021, in accordance with the Energy Law, PSE, as the TSO, was entrusted with the function of energy market information operator (OIRE). The main tasks of energy market information operator are to manage and administer the central energy market information system, to obtain energy market information and other information from the power system users for the implementation of energy market processes, to process information collected in the central energy market information system and other information to which it is entitled for the implementation of energy market processes and to support the implementation of these processes. The above activities will be fully performed by the energy market information operator from 1 July 2024, once the central energy market information system (CIRE) is launched.

Tasks of PSE as the transmission system operator

The Polish power system is part of the electricity system of the Continental Europe. The stability of this system is maintained by the actions of all transmission system operators and the resilience of local transmission systems. From the National Power Dispatch Centre we manage the operation of the power system, of the transmission network and of the 110 kV coordinated network. We forecast, calculate and determine parameters for safe system operation over a variety of time horizons.

The tasks carried out by PSE as the transmission system operator come down to five basic categories:

  1. Quality and ongoing security of electricity supply.
  2. Sufficiency of the national transmission network.
  3. Operation of the national central commercial balancing mechanism.
  4. International cooperation as part of interconnected electricity systems and a single European electricity market.
  5. Acting as the energy market information operator.

Tasks in the scope of ongoing security of supplies

Legal regulations applicable to the transmission system operator define the technical standards for the operation of the transmission system and the technical resources that the operator should have at their disposal to meet the requirements in this regard. Tasks performed by PSE in this area:

  • Balancing (of the electricity generation against the actual demand)
    Balancing applies to both very short periods (measured in seconds) and very long periods (expressed in hours), and is carried out through the use of power reserves maintained specifically for this purpose. The TSO is required to maintain specific amounts of reserves measured in seconds, minutes and hours. The first two forms of the reserves are obtained by concluding appropriate contracts with generating entities for the so-called system control services – this action is preceded by a tender procedure. The source of the hourly reserve is the balancing market (commercial offers). The activation of reserves takes place automatically or remotely (depending on the type and location) from the central power control system, based on a command given by telephone or using a different method that has been agreed upon.
  • Ensuring compliance with the network operation security criteria
    As the TSO, we are obligated to plan the operation of the network and the distribution of generation at its individual nodes in such a way so that a critical disturbance does not cause a system failure and limitation of electricity supply to consumers. To this end, we develop coordination plans with time horizons ranging from three years to a single day. The plans include both maintenance schedules for network elements and overhaul schedules for generating units. As part of the planning process, we identify constraints on the operation of generating units at the individual network nodes. We manage these constraints by using the balancing market mechanism or by entering into appropriate agreements with generating entities.
  • Application of preventive and restorative automatic control systems, and development of NPS defense and restoration plans
    The TSO also prepares measures to prevent the occurrence of conditions that threaten the stability of the NPS operation, including in particular the propagation of failures in the transmission system. For this purpose, we use various types of system-related automatic controls that enable quick changes in the network operation or production level of generating units, plans for shutting down consumers or limiting supply and consumption of electricity, e.g. based on power supply levels transmitted through radio communication. In the event of a transmission system failure, we have restoration scenarios in place, even anticipating the need to restore the entire national system. To enable these scenarios, the system operator contracts generating entities capable of starting up without external power supply (system service).

Tasks regarding the adequacy (sufficiency) of the national transmission network

As a TSO, we are responsible for the expansion and maintenance of the national transmission network and its interconnection with the systems of the neighboring countries. To ensure network sufficiency, our company performs the following tasks:

  • Transmission network expansion planning, taking into account the anticipated changes in the size and geographic distribution of the domestic demand, locations of new generating sources, and network expansion plans of the neighbouring country operators and distribution system operators. Read more
  • Maintenance of the technical condition of network equipment to ensure high availability . Read more

Tasks in the scope of operation of the national central commercial balancing mechanism

The specific nature of electricity as a product requires the existence of a central balancing mechanism and an entity responsible for the balancing. The balancing mechanism is to provide real-time commercial balancing of electricity market participants, and settlement of electricity used for balancing. In Poland, this role is fulfilled by the balancing market mechanism in which the current balancing of electricity market participants is carried out based on offers submitted by entities actively participating in the market. The balancing market mechanism very much affects other segments of the electricity market, as well as decisions on how to use generating resources.

The rules of the balancing market should ensure:

  • equal treatment of all participants,
  • transparency of settlement price determination process,
  • the possibility of consumer participation (consumption reduction offers),
  • creating price signals that promote efficiency of operation of the entire sector.

Tasks in the scope of international cooperation

We are a member of ENTSO-E (the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity). ENTSO-E consists of 39 transmission system operators from 35 countries in Europe.

Figure: ENTSO-E member states


The mission of ENTSO-E is to promote reliable operation, optimum management and sustainable development of the pan-European electricity transmission system to ensure security of supplies, and to meet the needs of the internal electricity market.

In-house indicator Almost 80 representatives of PSE are involved in the work of ENTSO-E, and actively participate in all important tasks at various levels of the organisation.

As part of their regular activities within ENTSO-E structures, representatives of PSE are actively involved in the preparation of the following documents:

  • SO (Seasonal Outlooks, winter – summer) – a seasonal generation adequacy assessment developed twice a year.
  • ERAA (European Resource Adequacy Assessment) – a technical and economic generation adequacy analysis, which is a medium-term pan-European assessment of power system adequacy. This assessment is carried out on the basis of stochastic analyses using advanced analytical tools.
  • TYNDP (Ten Year Network Development Plan) – a plan essential for the effective development of European cross-border interconnections. The main objective of the investments included in the TYNDP is to achieve European energy goals such as security of supply, sustainable power system development and creating conditions for the operation of the European energy market.
  • Regional Investment Plan – Regional Groups operating within the structures of the System Development Committee develop investment plans from a regional perspective. These plans perform an intermediate function between pan-European and national objectives, ensuring that national and regional actions are consistent with the pan-European ones.

Representatives of PSE participate in the above processes by providing data, creating and co-creating analytical solutions, performing calculations and cooperating in the development of documents. Read more 

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