ECONOMIC AND MARKET IMPACTMaintenance of the transmission network

The transmission grid owned by PSE consists of 15,693 km of extra-high voltage lines and 110 power substations. We maintain the technical condition and operating system of the network to meet applicable requirements. We are fully aware that the level of availability of our network facilities largely determines the operational safety of the entire system.
Our network infrastructure also includes a 450 kV submarine cable line with a length of 127 km. The length of the entire line connecting Poland with Sweden is 254 km.

Worth knowing

Availability index for transmission facilities - DYSU - is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the values of the availability indices of 5 groups of transmission equipment including groups of lines and transformers installed at our substations. 

The availability of each group of these facilities is calculated as the ratio of the actual operating hours of the transmission facilities (in hours) per year to the nominal number of hours per year. 

The DYSU index is intended to monitor the readiness of transmission network elements to provide electricity transmission service and takes into account the availability of the 5 groups of transmission facilities listed below: 

  1. Category L1 lines – international, radial and 400 kV lines with a peak load of over 300 MW, and 220 kV lines with a peak load of over 170 MW. 
  2. Category L2 lines ─ other lines not mentioned in points 1 and 3. 
  3. LB power unit lines – power output lines from power plants (connecting power plants with large near-plant substations). 
  4. Transformers in category S11 substations – transformers in substations with interconnections to the systems of other countries, in near-plant substations and in substations coupling 400 kV and 220 kV grids. 
  5. Transformers in category S22 substations – transformers in other substations not mentioned in point 4. 

Monitoring of the transmission network

Conducting monitoring of the operation and technical condition of the transmission grid 

Maintaining network assets requires the performance of ongoing monitoring of the operation and technical condition of various components in the transmission grid. The following operations monitoring services were set up for this task within the structures of the Operations Department: Monitoring Centre (CN) in Konstancin-Jeziorna and five Regional Monitoring Centres (RCN) at the head offices of branch divisions in Warsaw, Radom, Katowice, Poznań and Bydgoszcz. The monitoring services model has a hierarchical structure. The Regional Monitoring Centres functionally report to the Monitoring Centre and are responsible for a designated area of PSE's network assets.

The primary role of operation monitoring services is:

  • ongoing monitoring of the operation and technical condition of components of network assets owned by PSE S.A. (24/7 on duty), 
  • provision of continuous control and preview of facilities, equipment and systems, 
  • ensuring the availability and safety of equipment operation, 
  • supervision of work in progress, 
  • execution of switching and control operations in accordance with the adopted operational division of competence between KDM/ODM dispatching services and CN/RCN operation monitoring services, 
  • coordination by the Regional Monitoring Centres of work orders at substations and lines by performing the coordinator function in accordance with the provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Manual for power equipment and systems,
  • planning and optimisation of maintenance and investment works carried out on PSE's network assets, 
  • cooperation with DSO units, generators and contractors. 

The CN/RCN operations monitoring services play a key role in the event of disturbances or failures of components of the transmission grid assets, during which, based on e.g. signalling in SCADA systems or notifications from other entities, actions are initiated and disturbance elimination processes are activated. They continuously monitor the condition of the transmission grid facilities, defining temporary or quantitative limitations in their operation affecting operational conditions. 

Fig. Organisation of PSE S.A.'s operations monitoring services.

As many as 85 of the 110 substations owned by PSE are controlled and monitored remotely. This allows switching operations to be performed from KDM/ODM/CN/RCN master centres, improving the operation of the Polish Power System. Substations are gradually being brought up to the standard of remotely controlled and monitored facilities as part of the modernisation. In facilities not deemed to be remotely controlled and monitored, all operational activities are carried out by ZES. The above-mentioned activities of the operations services allow the transmission grid to be maintained in good condition ensuring full transmission capacity. 

Warehouse management as an environmentally friendly initiative in line with the concept of a circular economy

Warehouse management at PSE primarily prevents the generation of a large amount of waste. This is achieved through, among other things:

  • Warehousing of dismantled operable equipment; where dismantling involves operable equipment, the equipment is transferred for warehousing in a warehouse reserve, to be reused for troubleshooting or ongoing repairs. 
  • Refurbishment of inoperable equipment. Once a failure or a fault has occurred, inoperable equipment is dismantled and, where possible, examined and sent for refurbishment. After refurbishment, the equipment is transferred to the warehouse reserve as operational and reusable.

In cases where equipment or materials have become obsolete and the company has decided not to carry out the refurbishment, tenders are organised for appropriate waste management. Insulating medium in equipment is often a hazardous waste according to the Waste Act. For this reason, PSE as the generator is responsible for the waste until its final disposal.

Waste management is carried out by transferring waste to companies which, within the scope of their activities, hold environmental decisions for final disposal. Our company requires proof from waste collectors not holding appropriate decisions on final disposal of hazardous waste that the treatment process has been carried out and that hazardous waste has been handed over for final disposal.Some equipment includes recyclable materials. These include, for example, oil, steel, copper and porcelain. These materials are subject to processing, recovery and reuse.

Our activities are in line with the concept of a circular economy, which makes the warehouse management process an indirectly environmentally friendly activity. 

Key numbers

major warehouse locations of PSE: 2 in Radom and Bydgoszcz each and 1 in Warsaw, Katowice and Poznań each.

storage depots all over the country.

Cases of threats to the operation of EHV transmission lines caused by agrotextiles 

Among the many external and environmental factors posing a real risk to the operation of EHV transmission lines, various types of agrotextiles used in agriculture and industrial film have come to the fore in recent years. As a result of improper attachment to the ground and due to gusts of wind, agrotextiles float freely in the air and when they encounter an obstacle in the form of power line elements, they effectively wrap themselves around pole structures, insulators, live or lightning conductors. Similar risks are posed by inadequately secured industrial films used by businesses and individuals. Sections of flying agrotextiles or film are often so long that they catch on the live conductors of all phases, touching the ground. This poses an obvious danger to the operation of the transmission line, but also to bystanders, posing a hazard of electric shock caused by very high voltage electric current. The identification of such a threat always involves appropriate services securing the incident site and emergency shutdown of lines – often including lines that cannot be shut down from the point of view of the system operation – in order to eliminate the problem. Work on removing agrotextiles or film takes at least several hours due to, among other things, the need to prepare the working area for safe execution of the work, the involvement of lifting equipment or complicated entanglement of the agrotextiles or film in the line components. Each unplanned line shutdown to carry out such work generates high costs and involvement of, among others, the Operations Teams, whose staff are diverted from carrying out their planned work.

In 2021, only 3 hazards from agrotextiles and film were reported (including 1 involving agrotextiles and 2 involving film), which is a significant decrease in the number of hazards compared to 2020, when 13 cases were reported. Our company's activities, such as publishing warnings in local newspapers and putting up hazard information posters, have had a significant impact on lowering the number of dangerous incidents. 

Key numbers

expenses incurred for the operation and maintenance tasks of network facilities in 2021. 

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